Author: Tusa Enache

Communities and Traditions at Bulgarians and Romanians in Dobrogea. Part 1a

Within the research, I have tracked the evolution of different ethnic and political identities in Dobrogea as well as interferences, interconnections between these populations across times and in connection with other identities being involved in political, economical and cultural relations. Across the years, Dobrogea represented an important trading center and of commerce between Occident and Orient fact that stimulated the progress of the province between the Danube and the Black Sea (1). As many populations have succeeded, over the years, through the Transdanubian province, we encounter a very heterogenous, unique ethno-cultural mosaique within the Romanian space entailing certain peculiarities in accordance with the spiritual and material culture of every community. That is why I underwent the actual scientific demarche that materializes in the present research that intends to submit customs and traditions from Dobrogea. This varied cultural space that penetrated the collective mental of ethnic groups that have been living here for centuries.  Such elements are represented by intra and extra community social relations but also communication between members of Bulgarian and Romanian groups from this historical and geographical area that is part of both Romania and Bulgaria. Integration in the neighbourhood, in community or any other residential space has been assessed through expansion of family and close relationship relations in these living and cultural representations areas. It has been emphasized a negative correlation between identification with community and the dominance of social contacts in other spot.  Spiritual cultural of the Romanian people is very close to Bulgarian people culture as a result of long-term interaction and influences between the two communities.
             Popular customs and beliefs represent the original synthesis of archaic traditions, Latin inheritance and Slavonian that become manifest later. This suggests that while social identification is an important element of social protest, identification itself relies upon social relations and consensual definition of reality (2). The privilege of sultan Mustafa from 1784 through which trade relations between sheperds and Transylvanian tarders as well as some traders from Kustenje (Constantz) are regulated, confirm the same realities (3). Those that settled as inhabitants of Dobrogea, started to to practice agriculture properly, phenomenon that will spread once Dobrogea will be part of Romania once again. Economically, sheperds were the most active element of the province, overtaking, in many considerations, Romanian natives, crushed by the century-old Ottoman dominion (4). The number of Transylvania sheperds that crossed the Danube with their flocks of sheep raised during 19th century. And if a part of them came back in spring in the Carpathian Mountains „another part of them definitely remained settled in Dobrogea” (5). Generally, they used to get married with girls from their parts or with girls from the Dobrogea area, sometimes even with Bulgarian girls, and were establishing new households in old villages, they even used to establish new villages. With respect to these Romanians, Ionescu de la Brad records information according to which “they settle here, they marry local girls and many of them have been living for a long time in Dobrogea” (6). Also, Ionescu de la Brad used to record in a letter addressed to Ion Ghica that: „the most famous sheperds in Dobrogea are from the Balcik Kazan (the meaning of the term is that of Kaza, Ottoman territorial-administrative unity): Ion Munteanu, Vasile Milea, Dimitrie Bobinaru, Neculai Șchiopu, in  Küstengei Kazan (Constantza Kaza) are: Hagiu Poenaru, Zaharia Blebea, Jălea Duțu, Iacob Craiul, in Babalii Kazan (Babadag Kaza): Ion Tâlnaru, Gheorghe Roșca; in Tulcea kaza: the lads Oancei și Golea, that have settled in Tulcea for a long time” (7).
             In Romania, customs and traditions have a special calendar determined by seasons that establish in their turn, the type of lucky days and the Holidays of the year. Thus, Winter Holidays start with Christmas Eve (December 24th) and go on until The Feast of Saint John the Baptist (January 7th). It is the most important period of customs within religious tradition and Romanian popular mythology with many interesting rituals and manifestations of folk and ethnic culture. The beginning of winter celebrations trigger a series of social and religious manifestations that resemble Bulgarian tradition. Groups of children go from house to house, and at the same time, groups of youngsters or men join them and wish health and richness for the owners while the hosts welcome them in their houses and treat them. At this time of the year, people sing all sorts of hymns and Christmas carols with a secular content with patterns from Romanian ballads and legends. In this celebration cycle, there are sung religious carols depicting Saviour’s Birt hand all the stages after this important event of Christians’ lives. The carol singers wish wealthiness in the home, happiness and peace in the family, abundance. The richest in beliefs and customs for the Romanians is the evening before New Year or Saint Basil Night. In some regions of Romania, there are carols at St. Basil Night and in many areas of the country there is an ancient custom called „Pluguşor” (The Little Plough) representing an old carol. New Year’s Night is considered as magic. At New Year’s Eve they perform a ritual mask dance where only men or boys take part. This reminds of Bulgarian dances called ” kukers”. Another habit is Sorcova, in the first day of New Year but this custom exists only in some parts of Romania. The range of winter holidays ends up with „Christening” (Epiphany), a great christian feats where the waters of rivers and wells are blessed.
             Spring customs  start with the beginning of agricultural work and mark the awakening of nature to a new cycle of vegetation. These customs are related to religious calendar but also have multiple prechristian elements. The moment when winter and spring mingles is celebrated on Saint Trifon’s Day followed by Saint Haralambie’s Day and Saint Vlasie’s Day. In certain regions of Romania St. Trifon is seen as the lord of the wolves, patronizing harmful insects or the master of all animals, binding their mouths so they may not eat vegetables. In Romanian ethnography, on March 1st, there is the habit for parents to put some trinket at their childrens’ wrists. The March trinket is represented in Romanian space, since ancient times, by a golden or silver coin attached to a red thread or twisted with red and white thread. The purpose was that the one wearing it would have been happy all across the year, being healthy and clean like silver.
             Another extremely interesting feast during spring was The Plowman. There was a hommage brought to the first peasant that went plowing. The Great Martyr Saint George represents another celebration for the Romanians. Saint George is considered to be the protector of all  herds. At St. George’s Day, it was considered that the first milking of the sheep would take place at sunset, moment that had even an economical importance because it was the time when sheperds used to choose and negociate the place where they would take their flocks and where the common sheepfold would be placed.
             The greatest spring feast is represented by Easter. Starting with Maundy Thursday there comes the cleaning of houses and yards and everything that is necessary for this celebration is prepared. In the last days of  Lent, there are prepared dyed eggs and the bread that is to be blessed in the night of Ressurection. This feast of Easter is considered to be the most important of the year and it involves different popular beliefs and customs where there are sung religious songs.
             Summer and spring customs have a cycle that is related to rituals and celebrations protecting crops from extinguishment and degradation firstly because of the drought. The ritual of The Paparuda is meant to call for the rain that used to represent a fundamental element of these customs that were taking place during drought times. The tradition of The Paparuda has a very ancient history and  is well-known in the whole Balkan Peninsula. It is performed by women, one of them being completely covered in branches and green leaves. These girls go all around the village, come in every yard, where they sing a song meant to bring rain, clap their hands and the girl Paparuda dances until the owners of the husehold sprinkle her with water. This custom is identical to Bulgarian traditions. Another similar one in Romanian popular culture is „Caloianul”, reminding a Bulgarian custom. The spreading of this ritual is quite interesting, being mainly encountered in the southern and northern part of the Danube.
             In Bulgaria the tradition of The Caloian is performed in the northern part of the Balkan mountains. Romanian ethnographers assert that this tradition is dedicated to the god of vegetation and of nature. During the second half of the 19th century, relying upon Romanian native background, made up of Dicina Romanians (8), or „ancient Romanians”, the way they used to call themselves, there continued to settle in Dobrogea inhabitants from principalities, the so-called cojans, farmers from the surroundings of Muntenia and Moldavia as well as mocan, Transylvanian sheperds from Bârsa County,  Făgăraş, Sibiu and  Apuseni Mountains, brought here with a phenomenon named transhumance. 
             There were Romanians that had settled in Dobrogea coming from Romanian County (Muntenia) due to the poor life they had under Phanariot domination, they mixed with local Romanians, the dicians, those descending with the flocks of sheep in the Dobrogea steppe (9). Romanians migrated several times in Dobrogea and created new villages in the same lands where „until nowadays Romanian race is maintained with its particular nature” the way historian Nicolae Iorga asserts (10). So, next to Muslim people, there settled in Dobrogea other nations, too, in the last century of the Ottoman dominion, their settlement having a situational outline ad their stay had been many times temporary. It is well-known that many Romanian villages on the right side of the Danube, between Silistra and Cernavodă, have the same name with villages from the left side of the Danube, situated on the riverside of Borcea and these onomastic doubles (11) have been established long before Dobrogea annexation to the Romanian State (12). This aspect supports the prevalence of Romanian element „on both sides of the Danube and in Brăila Moor” (13). In the mid 19th century, Dobrogea looked like a stretching solitary land due to the fact that frequent and devastating wars as well as different armed incursions decimated the population, as I have previously stated. An interesting depiction of the territory comes from French doctor Camille Allard who, after presenting some details about this space, mentions that the population is very rare (14). In these conditions we must look for the causes that made Romanian population become majoritary in only 20 years (1878-1898). 
             According to an author (15) Romanians are natives and permanent in this area since it was inegrated in the Ottoman Empire although they have been in minority all the time and the respective author asserts that: „we did not know too well the situation of Romanian element in Dobrogea in the troubled times of the Middle Ages and mostly, in the first beginnings of Turkish age; the documents are almost inexistent and those that we have are less and too short but we can conclude that Romanians have always been inhabitants of these places” (16). Marin Ionescu Dobrogianu asserts that in a reference paperwork for Dobrogea that „a Romanian essence must have existed in Dobrogia before its colonization with Romanian inhabitants that came from the left side of the Danube” (17). Natives and permanent, Romanians are, yet, minority in a province that in the past, had belonged to The Romanian County. To this element we can add the fact depicted Constantin Brătescu (18) in 1916: ”as a result of colonizations in Dobrogea with Romanian elements from everywhere, it (Dobrogea n.n.) is a real summary, a museum of ethnography of entire Dacia” (19). Also, Bratescu records ethnic realities existing then in Dobrogea: ”here we can find Bulgarians from Macedonia and Rumelia, taken long ago towards Basarabia and then to Dobrogea; Moscow Russians and Rusnacs from steppe;Turkish and Tatars; merchant familiesbelonging to Armenians, Jews and Greeks; remains of some extinct peoples like Gagauz; then Albanians and Serbians; Romanian and Turkish gipsies; Germans and Italiens; Orient and Occident, foreigners spread all over among the preponderant mass of Romanian element that tends, in time, to ingrain its soul seal to the whole region” (20) ... On the other hand, sources (21) without any subjectivism mention that: „after war (1877 n.n.) there appears a transmutation of ethnic relations, many Mulsim ethnics (Turkish and Tatars) leave the country,  followed by a major part of Cossacks and Circassians that used to reside here. This can be explained by the settlement of Romanian administration causing, normally, an increase of Romanian immigration.With respect to this aspect, Romanian governments showed preoccupation to strengthen this methodical colonization offering war veterans places to stay in the newly acquired territory.We can add that wavering characters to express their origin discovered, under the new owners, they were being Romanians even though before,  they used to see themselves something else” (22). The increase of Romanian population made spectacular progress according to some Romanian surveys, regarded by some foreign researchers with certain reservation, due to the fact they were motivated by a certain national desire.
             Even under these circumstances Romanian colonization remains a real fact and represents a great success. According to the same quoted sources (23): (...) Romanians themselves assert they had found here 32.800 of fellowmen, a figure that seems somehowexaggerated. It is certain that a part of the increase was a result of introducing Romanian administration. But, as a whole,the increase in number is explained through large migration from Valachia and Moldavia. In the first years the emigration was spontaneous and in big number. In the newly acquired territories there was not yet a land property that would have allowed peasants to obtain a piece of land of their own and the houses and villages belonging to leaving Turkish and Tatars were open for the Romanians that kept on coming….) (24). At the same time, Romanian governments, aut of political reasons, constantly and strongly supported the Romanians settlement, bringing a big number of war veterans in Dobrogea offering them different favours to the detriment of other nationalities. A significant example would b eone of the most important politician of those times:  Mihail Kogălniceanu in a speech (25) kept in thr Chamber of Deputies on February 27, 1882, was asserting: „Gentlemen, what is our main interest in Dobrogea? Our main interest is to populate it, to civilize this part of today Romania, to populate it, I say this openly, giving it soul, giving it Romanian senses; saying this, you will understand that we have to do anything possible to bring there as many Romanians as possible; more than that, even populations that come there by themselves, should become Romanian. Within some years, we should transform even Muslims into Romanians, the only differenceshould remain that some will go to the mosque and others to church” (26). Dumitru Şandru, in the above paperwork, gives significant details upon the way colonizations were made and the regions Romanians came from, in Dobrogea. The same author acknowledges that: „although in small number, Romanians had been living in Dobrogea even before 1800 in some case even around 1700” (27). The researcher Dumitru Șandru initiates some inquiries in Dobrogea, questioning some inhabitants about the issue of their settlement in Dobrogea. Thus, in the elderly’s memories there is one idea: the settlement of their parents and grandparents is very old.”(...) old sheperds of more than 80-90 years old, that were born here remember their parents even grandparents talking that they reached these areas when they were like 14-15 years old” [so before 1800]. The author claims that there have been connections between Romanians from historical provinces and the Dobrogea territory that documnets mention only very late (19th century). Social realities described by D. Şandru are also claimed by Marin D. Ionescu in his paperwork  Dobrogia at the beginning of the 20th century, where he asserts that in 1850 the Romanians “were the second dominant element after the Turkish and their number was  3.656 families” (28). Moreover, Ionescu claims that during ?cruel? reigns from Muntenia and Moldavia in 17th and 18th centuries "many of the inhabitants from the miserable Principalities found a better solution in going to Dobrogea where they were not so deprived of the result of their working as it was the case in their native territories (29). Thus, M.D Ionescu states that, the right riverbank of the Danube „is filled with Romanian villages that must have existed long before, because it was right that the new arrived individuals should groups with their fellow countrymen in the same villages” (30). Another author, Karl F. Peters, says that in 1865 there were „12000 Romanian souls” (31) using the survey of the Russian consular agent, a certain Viskovitch. Ion Ionescu de la Brad gives even a survey that he made when he accomplished the research in Dobrogea in 1850 and analyzed the territory from different aspects. In the study he published together with this research and the survey he had undertaken, there were presented territorial units as well as the number of Romanian villages subordinated to these territorial units called „kaza”. The survey involves a division of the population on genders as well as a division in accordance with their civil status: married, unmarried. The survey appears in the table below:
             The data have been taken from Ion Ionescu de la Brad’s work, published at Constantinople in 1850.
             We can see that in accordance with the figures registered by  Ion Ionescu de la Brad, there is  a population of about 28.000 Romanian inhabitants  in Dobrogea (32). The presence of sheperds in the Dobrogean regions means they enterred the transdanubian province before The Independence War, too. Romanians in Dobrogea represented three compact groups, as some sources claim (33) and this differenciation had appeared even since 17th century. Thus, as I had previously stated, we have the compact group of dicians (34), Romanians from ancient times, natives that represented an element of permanence and continuity. Dumitru Şandru claims that they used to call themselves ancient Romanians or turcoians  or turcoman meaning they had been in Dobrogea since its colonization with Turkish population (Ottoman) (35). In those times, relying upon the native Romanian background, made up of dicians, or ancient Romanians, as they used to call themselves, continued to establish inhabitants from Principalities, the cojans, farmers from din the surroundings of Muntenia and Moldavia. The cojans had their origins, mainly in the counties of  Ialomiţa, Buzău and Brăila and in the counties close to Moldavia and Basarabiei (36). The third group of Romanians that came in Dobrogea before 1878 had its origin in the Ardeal parts, mostly from the villages close to Braşov, Orăştie, Sibiu. Andrei Veress asserted something quite interesting: „grazing of the Ardeal inhabitants in Romanian counties, mainlz in Dobrogea developped for centuries, in such a simple and patriarchal way that we do not have any written document because people in those times were wiser, more pious (...) they were the guardians of customs and continued grazing according to ancient traditions, kept for generations”. These Romanians were generally called mocans ( Transylania sheperds) (38), from Făgăraş, Sibiu and  Apuseni Mountains, that came here with the moving of the flocks. The lack of any written document, recording these events, is explained by another autrhor in a very unusual way (39). The moving of the flocks  in Dobrogea, acquires a major breadth after the year 1800. The sheperds (mocans), masters, had their origins in three ethnographic regions: The County of Sibiu (Mărginimea), Bârsa County and  Three  Reigns, and only accidentally from other parts. Among the villages surrounding Sibiu County, Sălişte comes first, then, Tilişca, Poiana, Cărpiniş.  As far as  Bârsa County is concerned, the most important were: Bran, Sohodol, Predeal, Măjura, but also Satul Lung, Baciu, Cernat, Purcăreni. Out of Three Reigns, the master sheperds had their origins mainly from Breţcu and Întorsura Buzăului. The richness of pastures between the Danube and the Black Sea determined a constant presence of  Transylvanian sheperds in Dobrogea, from ancient times. Information concerning the sheperds’ move of flocks in Dobrogea, also come from the German Ungewitter,  who in a depiction of Ottoman Empire published in 1854 mentioned that: „the wonderful pastures of Dobrogea were exploited mostly, by Romanian sheperds from Transylvania, who used to bring many flocks of sheep, in terms of some specific conditions through pact and customs” (40). Their wanderings between Transylvania and Dobrogea, the phenomenon of the move of the flocks relied upon ancient traditions and later on, upon exact conventions with the Ottoman Empire. Except sheperds owning flocks of sheep and their employees, we also have to assert that some Transylvanian sheperds were hired by Bulgarian and Turkish cattle breeders, their number was at least 500 souls (41). The sheperds played a particular role in the history of Dobrogea. In the first place, they appreciated for centuries, the rich and wide pastures of this province that otherwise would have become useless. Their contribution concerns trade, too that some of them were practicing. In this respect, it is quite useful to quote the consignment  of  a Hungarian traveller (42) thta used to write to one of his relatives: „here there are many rich merchants/traders that practice trade in Ardeal and in Constantza. Another information claiming this aspect is a letter of the same traveller „Cernavdă is place dina very ugly place, with beautiful houses yet, the one leaving there are half Vlachs and half Bulgarians and there are few Turkishse” (43). The privilege of Sultan Mustafa from 1784 that was regulating trading relations between Transylvania sheperds and merchants and some merchants from Constantza confirm the same realities (44). Those that settled as inhabitants of Dobrogea, started to practice agriculture properly, phenomenon that will be amplified once Dobrogea being annexed to Romania. Economically, the sheperds represented the most active element of the province, overcoming local Romanians in many aspects,too, that have been crushed by century-old Ottoman dominion. The number of Transylvanian sheperds that crossed the Danube with the flocks of sheep, increased across the 19th  century. And if a part of them returned in the Crapathians in spring, „another part of them remained sttled in Dobrogea for good” (45).  They used to get married with girls coming from the same region or with local girls, sometimes even Bulgarians, they used to settle new households in old villages or even were establishing new villages. We have information about affinities and marriages of sheperds (mocans) with local Romanian women as well as girls from other villages but from a common emigration region although the villages they settled in, in Dobrogea are different (46). Dobrogea was part of the ancient Geto-Dacian area under Roman domination, the first Romanian land and the longest Romanized according to some pertinent sources (47) that were compelled in the scientific space. The problem of Romanian continuity appears on the following levels: continuity of local Romanians, the dicians, the continuous move of the flocks belonging to mocans from Braşov parts and Sibiu, the arrival of an impressive number of Romanians from the left side of the Danube, the cojans, on the same territory where there were also Aromanians (Romanians that came from the south part of the Danube) that we can identify as traders within trading companies in Transylvania but also in Dobrogea (48). Constantin Brătescu, in a study of those times shows that, as far as the continuity of Romanian population during the Ottoman domination there were three distincy periods. As a result of massive colonizations from 16th century with Turkish-Tatar population in Dobrogea, Christian communities had to regroup on the Danube line where they had been staying for a long time as well as the region close to the Danube mouths where there will be established Romanian villages that „will have permanent residence” (49). In the 18th century, there are maps containing topic Romanian names as well as the fact that Romanians were living on the right side of the Danube from the depiction of Romanian names belonging to settlements appearing in the maps mentioned above. Thus, we can encounter toponyms like: Dârstor, Iglița, Dăeni, Strachina, Ciocănești, Parcheș, Somova, Stelniceni, Chilia Veche, Portița (Porktztzia), Bisericuța, Dunărea Veche etc (50). Ion Ionescu de la Brad was registering  in 1850 that in Silistra church there were Romanian religious songs an dina  primary school where „ the teacher was Bulgarian and was teaching Romanian language like one that is understood by everybody” (51). This is admitted by all travellers visiting Dobrogea as it is written in the collection „Foreign travellers towards Romanian countries”.  Referring to these travellers, we will make use of several items of information, according to which next to Romanians in Dobrogea, there settled other races, Christian or non-Christian. Foreign travellers are not interested witnesses with respect to the information on the reasons of Romanian national continuity. For 16th century, we also have written proofs concerning the passage and settlement in Dobrogea of some Romanians from the left side of the river. If we were to believe the notes of the Ragusan (Sicily) author Aloisio Radibrat (Alvise Radibarti), the soldiers of Mr. Radu Ştefan were at 1603 on the Dobrogea riverbank of the Danube, in a place called Dăieni, where „there gathered thousands of Romanians, with their families, running away of the tyrannyof formerrulers of Moldavia and Muntenia”, aspect mentioned by  Nicolae Iorga himself (52). In 1641, the Ragusan traveller Pietro Diodato Baksici, was mentioning that in the Dobrogea steppe area, Christians were living only at seaside and on the Danube bank, certainly being rushed there by Moslem colonization. The traveller registers the presence of an Orthodox population in Babadag, too counting  „60 households with  450 souls” (53).
(1) Within the Treaty of Peace from Berlin article 46 had some specifications: „ the territory between The Danube Delta, including the way from until the Black Sea at South Mangalia” was reunited with Romania, Documents concerning history of Romanian; Independence War , vol. 9 Bucureşti, 1995, p.377.
(2) Dominic ABRAMS, Processes of Social Identification, în , Social psychology of Identity and the Self concept, coord. Glynis M. Breakwell, Surrey University Press, 1992, p. 87.
(3) Petre P. PANAITESCU, Economic Importance of Sheperds (Mocans) in the History of Muntenia, Cluj, f.e.,1936,p.36 where the author asserts that: there have always been created trading roads, not by sheperds but imposed of trading centers or ports at the Danube and at the Black Sea.
(4) Ion Ionescu de la Brad, Agriculture Trip in the Plain of Dobrogea, The Printing of Romanian Tribune, Bucuresci, 1879, p. 127.
(5) C.C.GIURESCU, op.cit, p.17; Tudor MATEESCU, Sheperds’ Grazing..., p.80-82; Tudor MATEESCU, Permanence and Continuity of the Romanians.., p.73-74.
(6) This explains why villages from Dobrogea have names from Ardeal like: Siliștea, Poiana, Galeșu,etc.
(7) Victor SLĂVESCU, Mail between Ion Ionescu de la Brad and Ion Ghica, 1846-1874, București, 1943,p. 52.
(8) This name of Romanian Dicians seems to have been taken from a toponym Dicina, a possible version of the toponym Vicina attested in medieval sources of the 7th-14th centuries. Gheorghe BRĂTIANU, Recherches sur Vicina et Cetatea Albă, București, 1935, pp. 27-20.
(9) Gheorghe VÂLSAN, Romanians were living in the Danube Delta in 15th century, in Romanian Idiom, 1927, p.146.
(10) Apud. Victor MORFEI, The Swamp of Ialomita, in, Annals of Dobrogei, an V și VI, 1924-1925, p.80.
(11) In this respect we can have the following localities: the village of Vaidomir at West of Silistra that is the double of the same village at west from Călăraşi. Double villages are also: Coslogea (Coslugea), Oltina, Satu Nou, Beilic, Cocargea, Mârleanu, Romulus SEIȘAN, op.cit. , p. 159.
(12) Ion NENCIU, A Romanian Penetration in Old Dobrogea, in, The Regional Newsletter of the Geography Society , tome XLII, București, 1923, p. 94.
(13) Ibidem.
(14) Camille ALLARD mentions that all over the territory of Dobrogea there were few settlements made up of: Tatars, Bulgarians and ….Romanians although the latter one were on the Danube riverbank. The same doctor mentions that at Constantza, (Kustenge) „a small Turkish village” in 1856 there were only 3 Romanian families, Mission medicale dans la Tartarie –Dobroutscha ,Paris 1857, quoted by Al. ARBORE in The Annals of Dobrogea ,III, fa., p.269-270
(15) Dumitru ŞANDRU , Sheperds in Dobrogea, The institute of National History from Bucharest., Bucureşti, 1946- where the author mentions the fact that all the Ottoman domination there existed Romanians in Dobrogea. The author fundaments its information relying upon survey during 1910 and 1920 in all places of Dobrogea where there existed Romanian families.
(16) Ibidem , p. 10
(17) M.D. IONESCU, Dobrogea at Dawn of the 20th Century, București, Graphic Arts Publishing House, 1904, p.323.
(18) Teacher at Normal School from Constantza, so, inhabitant of Dobrogea and excellent connoisseur of realities regarding the period after the Independence War
(19) Constantin BRĂTESCU Demographic Situation of Dobrogea, in, DOBROGEA RECORDS, Journal of Society for Research and Study of Dobrogea, vol.I, București, „Jockey-Club” Publishing House Ion C. Văcărescu, 1916, pp.12-16.
(20) Ibidem , p. 13.
(21) Dr. Paul TRAEGER ... Bilder aus der Dobroutscha, 1918, translated at Constant Art Publishing House in 2008, p. 278.
(22) Ibidem
(23) Ibidem , p 279.
(24) Paul TRAEGER depicts realities he found in the territory that really defined a situation closet o the information the author records in the mentioned work.
(25) Mihail Kogălniceanu’s Program upon Dobrogea, that he supported so much that he asked to repsect all traditions including those of the Lipovens and more, they should be exempted of military service „their religion prevent them from carrying guns”. Vasile M. KOGĂLNICEANU, Dobrogea 1879-1909; Political Rights without Liberties , The Publishing House of Socecu Bookstore, Bucureşti ,1910, p.28-31.
(26) Ibidem , p . 31
(27) Dumitru ŞANDRU , op. cit. p.24.
(28) M.D. IONESCU, Dobrogea at Dawn of the 20th Century, București, Socecu Publishing House, 1904, p.324.
(29) Ibidem.
(30) Ibidem.
(31) Karl F. PETERS, Geographie und Geologie der Dobroudscha, p.131, Microfilmed edition belonging to the Library of Romanian Academy. The researcher is reminded by Mihail Ionescu Dobrogeanul in his paper on Dobrogea that I have already mentioned.
(32) Ion IONESCU de la BRAD, Excursion agricole dans la plaine de la Dobrodja, Constantinopole, 1850, p.81
(33) Românii din Dobrogea, în Literary Romania, 1855, nr.2, p. 14 -15 where we find information according to which Dobrogea is „a mosaic of races, a miniatural Dacia”. This characterization meet in the mail between Ion Ionescu de la Brad and Ion Ghica where we meet assertions like: „in all villages you can meet a miniatural Dacia but also a union of all Romanians”, Victor SLĂVESCU, Mail between Ion Ionescu de la Brad and Ion Ghica ,p.71, 102, şi 122. f.a., f.e.
(34) This name, Dicians, was kept, according to G.Vâlsan after the name of the last metropolitan church of medieval Dobrogea from Vicina-Dicina, Romanian Idiom vol. I. 1927 ,nr. 7, p. 142; G. Vâlsan, Posthumous Works, Bucureşti, 1946, Editura Casei Şcoalelor, p.49.
(35) Dumitru ŞANDRU, op.cit., p.13 şi 14.
(36) Ibidem, 15.
(37) Andrei VERESS, Ardeleans’ Grazing in Moldovia and Muntenia (up to 1821) ,Bucureşti, f.e 1927 ,p. 15-18 where the author consigns important information on the move of the flocks phenomenon.
(38) .Dumitru ŞANDRU, op.cit. p. 14; a se confrunta şi Sever POP, în, Revue des etudes indo-europenees vol. I , 1938, p.66.
(39) Ibidem, p.16-18.
(40) Tudor MATEESCU, The Sheperds’ Grazing on the Territory between the Danube and the Black Sea, General Department of the Public Archives, Bucureşti, 1976. p.71-72; to compare Tudor MATEESCU News on the Presence of Sheperds in Dobrogea about the Ottoman Domination, in Apulum, Alba Iulia 11,1973,p.424.
(41) Ion GEORGESCU, Public Education in Dobrogea, in,***Dobrogea. Fifty Years of Romanian Life,.....p. 643.
(42) It is about Kelemen Mikes (serving Iosif Rakoczi, heir of Ardelean throne) who around 1738 had been living for a while in Cernavodă, Dobrogea Annals ,IV, 1923, nr 4 , p. 109. To compare Ioan M. PĂUNESCU, A Spot of Dobrogean. Monographic Drawing, Institute of de Graphic Arts Albania, Constanţa, 1946, p.76.
(43) Ibidem, p.77
(44) Petre P. PANAITESCU, Însemnătatea Economic Importance of Sheperds in the History of Muntenia, Cluj, f.e.,1936,p.36 where the author asserts that: au fost there have always been created trade roads, not by sheperds, but imposed by trading centers or ports to the Danube or to the Black Sea.
(45) C.C.GIURESCU, op.cit, p.17; Tudor MATEESCU, Sheperds’ Grazing..., p.80-82; Tudor MATEESCU, Permanence and Continuity of Romanians..., p.73-74.
(46) Nicolae IORGA, Romania. Up to the 1918- Moldavia and Dobrogea, II, Bucureşti, 1940, p.274
(47) Adrian Rădulescu, Ion Bitoleanu, History of Romanians between the Danube and the Sea. Dobrogea, Ed. Ştiinţifică şi Enciclopedică, Bucureşti, 1979, p.15; to see Mihai BĂRBULESCU, From the Beginning of Civilization to Romanian Synthesis, in, The History of Romania, Ed. Corint, Bucureşti, 2002, p.27-28, 44-45; a to see Simion MEHEDINŢI, Pontic Dacia and Carpathian Dacia. Anthropographic Observations in Dobrogea; ***Dobrogea - 50 Years of Romanian Life, National Culture Publishing House, Bucureşti, 1928, p.191-200.
(48) Teodor MATEESCU, op.cit. p. 31.
(49) Gheorge VÂLSAN , in , Romanian Idiom, An I, București, 1927, pp.145-148.
(50) Alexandru P. ARBORE, An Attempt of Restoration the Romanians’s Past in Dobrogea, in ,The Annals of Dobrogea, 1922, An III, nr. 2, pp. 260-263; to see also Gheorghe VÂLSAN, Romanians in Dobrogea, on a map dating around 1769-74, in, Annals of Dobrogei, I, pp. 532-540.
(51) Constantin BRĂTESCU, art. cit.,
(52) Nicolae IORGA, Studies and Documents concerning Romanians’ History,vol.IV, Bucureşti, 1902, p.117; Foreign Travellers about Romanian Counties ,vol. III, Bucureşti, 1972, p.274.
(53) Gheorghe VINULESCU, Piedro Diodato e la sua relazione sulla Moldavia (1641), în „Diplomatarium italicum”,IV, Roma ,1939, p.102, quoted by Tudor Mateescu in the above mentioned work at page 25.

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